According to the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) , the plasticity is a quality of plastic materials . There are, however, various uses of the concept.
It can be said that plasticity is a mechanical property of some substances, capable of undergoing irreversible and permanent deformation when subjected to a tension that exceeds their range or elastic limit . When it comes to metals, it is possible to explain the plasticity according to the movements of the dislocations that are impossible to reverse. It is necessary to differentiate, in this sense, plasticity enters and what is known as elastic behavior , which can be reversed at the thermodynamic level.
The notion of cellular plasticity On the other hand, it is a property that characterizes stem cells and allows them to differentiate. It has been shown that a cell can not only differentiate itself from another, but also has the possibility of returning to its previous state.
The ions that are common to the environment and the location in the homeostatic system are responsible for regulating the electrolytic faculties of the cells. When a potential difference is recorded between the interior of the cell and the medium, a molecular precipitation occurs that allows compensation to be achieved from a coupling of the ionized molecules to the plasma membrane.
In biology there is the concept of phenotypic plasticity which refers to the properties that the genotypes which allow them to create other phenotypes to deal with a certain environmental condition. This concept is closely linked to the concept of evolution.
There are two types of phenotypic plasticity: development plasticity and phenotypic flexibility . The first is that which refers to the changes that occur in a species so as not to perish, it is absolutely linked to the evolution ; while the second is one that occurs in the same individual and is reversible.
The Neuronal plasticity , which is also known as synaptic plasticity , neural plasticity or neuroplasticity , is the natural and functional property of neurons when establishing communication.
If we look for the definition made by the World Health Organization we can say that neuronal plasticity is described as the ability of the cells that make up the nervous system to reconstitute anatomically and functionally, after certain pathologies , diseases or even trauma .
It is an adaptive capacity of the entire nervous system to solve or counteract the effects that an injury can cause on the cells. This quality implies the modulation of the perception of incoming and outgoing stimuli with respect to their environment in such a way that certain neurons can supply the shortcomings and take the place of other neurons that do not work properly. In turn, neuronal plasticity allows the growth of new synapse taking as a starting point a neuron that is damaged.
It is necessary to mention that this capacity of brain It is more efficient when the affected person is few years old than when he is in adulthood. On the other hand, the process of neuronal reconstruction develops gradually, and its results can be seen in the small improvements that the patient shows in his mobility and in the recovery of lost movements or functions.
The brain is made up of billions of neurons, which are connected to each other by synapses. Although neurons cannot reproduce on their own, there is something called dendritic regeneration, which occurs when lesions appear in the brain.
Lesions in the brain can strongly modify the life of an individual by producing drastic consequences, such as motor, sensory, or cognitive deficits. For this reason, the study of neuronal plasticity is so important that it allows the reconstruction of the cells so that the organism re-develops the tasks that it carried out before the accident without any problem.