Originating in the Latin term hypothesis, which in turn derives from a Greek concept, a hypothesis It is something that is supposed and what is given a certain degree of possibility to extract from it an effect or a consequence. Its validity depends on the submission to several tests, based on the theories elaborated
For example: "My hypothesis is that if we launch the new product before the end of the year, we will increase the market share", "The coach does not consider any other hypothesis than Romania's victory in the next game", "The police still have no hypothesis about the murder of the girl".
In the colloquial language its indiscriminate use is very common, with a degree of inaccuracy comparable to that suffered by the word philosophy. Given the close relationship between hypotheses and investigation organized, its use is inconsistent to talk about vague opinions about sports, politics and economics, among other controversial issues. Also, this term is very often confused with theory, the first of the components of a hypothesis.
Development of a hypothesis
For him scientific method, a hypothesis is a provisional solution and that has not yet been confirmed for a certain problem. According to the empirical information that can be obtained in the field work, the hypothesis may have a lesser or greater degree of reliability. Next, we find the steps to follow for its construction and developing:
* Preparation of questions, which arise naturally from ignorance about phenomenon Natural being studied.
* Search for possible answers, provided they are based on procedures and theories that can be proven in the field of science. On the contrary, those that cannot be tested are considered speculation And they are ignored.
* Prediction of the results that will be obtained when putting into practice the elaborated answers
* Experimentation and detailed record of the findings, so that they can be reproduced as many times as necessary if they are collected terms.
* Analysis and processing of the results obtained. An attempt is made to find a relationship between the data that has been recorded throughout the conduct of the various experiments. In addition, this information is contrasted with the prediction mentioned above. Generally, this analysis culminates in a mathematical expression to organize the hypothesis, the prediction and the results.
* Finally, it is concluded whether the hypothesis is true or false, depending on the degree of accuracy of the prediction.
These steps become a new hypothesis, which will generate more predictions and experiments, understanding the research cycles that result in scientific advances.
Types of hypotheses
Association or covariation hypothesis: are those that establish a certain relationship between two or more of its variables, so that by modifying one of them, we will directly or indirectly alter the dependent variable. A simple example: if the value of and depends on xlet's say increase x it can result in both an increase and a decrease in and.
Production Relationship Hypothesis: the behavior or alteration of a variable modifies or influences the variable dependent. Example of influence: a disease news produces anguish. Regarding the change in behavior: acquiring knowledge about possible treatments improves the patient's habits, to obtain a faster healing.
Causal Relationship Hypothesis: explain and predict the facts and phenomena contemplating certain margins of error. This type of hypothesis occurs when the behavior or alteration of a variable is the effect of other, cause, which is not strange or random and takes place before the first. A clear example is to affirm that reading improves spelling, since reading (the cause) occurs before the supposed improvement when writing (the effect), and the result is not always the same.