It is known as knock to the act and consequence of hitting, a verb that refers to both physical and symbolic impacts. He State , on the other hand, it is a modality that allows to organize a society in a sovereign and coercive way and with authority to regulate the operation of the community within a certain territory.
When combining the definitions of both terms, the notion of coup . It is a violent action carried out by military or rebel forces that seeks to keep the government of a State . The coup d'etat, in this way, supposes the replacement of the existing authorities and the change of command of the state institutions by imposition.
Specifically to establish the origin of the term we have to go back to 18th-century France when it began to be used to refer to all those violent actions that the king carried out without taking into account the rules established, morally and legally, in the society. The fact that he rushed them in this way was based on the fact that they were necessary for the common good.
The coup d'état constitutes a violation and lack of recognition towards constitutional legitimacy since it violates the legal regulations of arrival and permanence in power. It is possible to distinguish between two major types of coups: institutional coup it is the one that takes place when certain members of the acting party come to power, while the military coup It is specified by the armed forces. In recent decades the notion of market coup to refer to the institutional changes that take place due to the pressure of economic groups in conditions to destabilize the economy .
Among the most important coup d'etats in history stands out, for example, the one that took place in Spain in 1936. An action was carried out against the reigning government at that time, the Second Republic, and which led to the bloodiest time in the country: the Civil War. A warlike conflict that brought horror, desolation and death to the nation and that would end the establishment of a dictatorship imposed by the rebels on whose front Francisco Franco was.
However, other equally relevant coups have taken place in Spain. Specifically another of the best known was the failed one that was carried out on February 23, 1981 by Lieutenant Colonel of the Civil Guard Antonio Tejero. A plan that was frustrated thanks to the action of the King and General Alfonso Armada.
So far in the 21st century there have also been several coups throughout the world. Among the most significant are that of Thailand in 2006 by the army, that of Honduras in 2009 or April 2012 in Guinea-Bisaú.
There are several terms that are often used as synonyms for coup d'etat but, in reality, have other meanings. A revolution For example, it implies a profound social change, something that may not be present in a coup d'etat. The civil war On the other hand, it is a military confrontation extended over time between members of the same society (the coup d'etat, on the other hand, is a quick action). The rebellions , riots and riots Finally, they are collective disobedience with no intention of taking power.