It is called learning to the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, values and attitudes, made possible through study, teaching or experience. This process can be understood from different positions, which implies that there are different theories linked to the fact of learning. Behavioral psychology, for example, describes learning according to the changes that can be observed in the behavior of a subject.
The fundamental process in learning is the imitation (the repetition of an observed process, which implies time, space, skills and other resources). In this way, children learn the basic tasks necessary to survive and develop in a community.
Human learning is defined as the relatively invariable change of a person's behavior from the result of the experience. This change is achieved after the establishment of an association between a stimulus and its corresponding response. The capacity is not exclusive to the human species, although in the human being learning was constituted as a factor that exceeds the common ability of the most similar branches of evolution. Thanks to the development of learning, humans have achieved a certain independence from their ecological environment and can even change it according to their needs.
Pedagogy establishes different types of learning. Learning can be mentioned by discovery (the contents are not received passively, but are reordered to adapt them to the scheme of cognition), learning receptive (the individual understands the content and reproduces it, but fails to discover something new), learning significant (when the subject links their previous knowledge with new knowledge and gives them coherence according to their cognitive structure) and learning repetitive (produced when the data is memorized without understanding or linking it with previous knowledge).
As defined by Isabel García, learning is all that knowledge that is acquired from the things that happen to us in daily life, in this way knowledge, skills, etc. are acquired. This is achieved through three different methods, experience, instruction and observation.
According to Patricia Duce, one of the things that greatly influences learning is the interaction with the environment, with the other individuals, these elements modify our experience, and therefore our way of analyzing and appropriating the information. Through learning, an individual can adapt to the environment and respond to the changes and actions that take place around him, changing if this is necessary to survive.
There are many theories about why and how human beings access knowledge, such as Pávlov, who asserts that knowledge is acquired from the reaction to simultaneous stimuli; or the theory of Albert Bandura in which it is said that each individual assembles his own way of learning according to the primitive conditions that he has had to imitate models. For its part, Piaget deals with it exclusively by analyzing cognitive development.
In learning theories, attempts are made to explain the way in which meanings are structured and new concepts are learned. A concept serves to reduce learning to a point in order to decomplexize it and be able to grab it; they serve not only to identify people or objects, but also to order them and pigeonhole reality, so that we can predict what will happen. At this point, we can affirm that there are two ways to form the concepts the empiricist (It is done through an association process, where the subject is passive and receives the information through the senses) and the european (is achieved by reconstruction, the subject is active and is responsible for building learning with the tools available to him)
To conclude, we will say that learning consists of one of the basic functions of the human, animal mind and artificial systems and is the acquisition of knowledge from a certain external information.
It should be noted that at the moment in which all human beings are born, except those born with a disability, we have the same intellect and that according to how the learning process develops, said intellectual capacity will be used to a greater or lesser extent .
Learning is acquiring, analyzing and understanding information from outside and applying it to one's existence. In learning individuals, we must forget the preconceptions and acquire new behavior. Learning forces us to change behavior and reflect new knowledge in present and future experiences. To learn you need three essential acts: observe, study and practice .