The fingerprint , a term that can also be accentuated in the second I (fingerprint ), is the discipline dedicated to fingerprint analysis . Its techniques allow to identify individuals.
According to experts, fingerprint is among the most reliable procedures for ID of a human being . This is due to the characteristics of the fingerprints or digital , which are the impressions left by the fingertip in an item when you touch it.
The drawing of the fingertips arises in intrauterine life and is distinctive of each individual. These lines are immutable and just begin to disappear with rot post mortem. Certain injuries deep can alter the drawings, although the scars are also elements of identification.
Given these particularities, the State takes care of register fingerprints of citizens to enable their identification. In this context, the fingerprint acquires importance, which allows people to obtain, register, classify and recognize the fingerprints.
For many years, the most common method of obtaining a fingerprint was by impregnating a finger with a coloring substance and then pressing the yolk on a paper or cardboard. Currently, fingerprint uses digital tools to capture, print and store the drawing .
He Automated Fingerprint Identification System (known by the acronym AFIS ) is a fingerprint resource used to compare and recognize fingerprints. This computer file collects the fingerprints of the people with a criminal record: if investigators working at the scene of a crime manage to collect some fingerprints, they can send the information to AFIS and contrast it with the data already registered. This could allow the identification of the criminal.
Dactiloscopia is a branch of the lofoscopy (also known as lofoscopy or papilloscopy within the scope of the criminalistics , and how dermatoglyph in zoology and medicine), a science that is responsible for the study of the designs that form the papillary ridges, which are located on the surface of the skin of the parts of the body that we use to perceive the tactile stimuli, to exercise the prehensile function and for locomotion.
This discipline is the most popular and used in research pertaining to the criminalistics , the discipline that consists in the analysis of a series of indications in order to solve a crime, that is, to find the greatest amount of data about the authors, the victims, the motivations and the potential consequences.
As mentioned above, the use of computer systems to capture, store and compare fingerprints of citizens has left behind methods "manuals". One of the biggest advantages that they offer to the security forces is a considerable increase in speed when it comes to contrasting a footprint with all those present in the database.
As if this were not enough, police departments can now request access to databases from anywhere in the world if the investigation requires it, as is the case when it is suspected that the criminal comes from a foreign country. Of course, in practice, bureaucracy and laws make this process much less immediate than it seems in theory.
In broad strokes, we can differentiate three epochs in the history of fingerprint: prehistoric , according to certain drawings found in very old caves; the empirical , with endless digital impressions of the Greeks and Romans that can be seen in documents used at the time to identify people; the scientific , when the human being began to apply scientific knowledge and laboratory instruments in this area.