It is known as neurolinguistic to discipline that analyzes the human brain methods to achieve the understanding, generation and identification of language , Both spoken and written.
According to experts, neurolinguistics has an interdisciplinary root since it benefits from contributions from the linguistics , the neurobiology and the computational linguistics . The notion of neurolinguistics is usually linked to the study of aphasia , difficulty that reflects a linguistic deficiency from specific forms of brain damage.
Therefore, it is customary to say that the aphasiology It constitutes the historical basis of neurolinguistics. Anyway, over the years, this discipline achieved a valuable development and has been complemented by new technologies, which expanded its field of action.
For example, the most modern techniques of brain image allowed access to new knowledge about anatomical structure based on language functions. With these images, the use of energy in the brain area can be analyzed while performing actions aimed at processing the language.
The so-called EEG electrophysiological techniques (electroencephalography) and EMG (electromyography) On the other hand, they offer a resolution on a millisecond scale, although the nature of the brain mechanism that causes the electrical signals on the scalp has not yet been studied, which makes interpretation difficult. EEG and EMG are used to test cognitive-computational theories related to the organization of language, without considering its neurobiological implementation.
For a better understanding of the concept we can explain that the brain is divided into two halves that are identical to the naked eye, which are called left and right hemisphere ; The first is the one we use mostly when we are creating something, the second is the one that deals with the logical issues and usually presents a greater activity when we are talking or studying mathematics. Each of these halves is formed by four lobes: the frontal lobe (controls the movements), the parietal lobe (makes association between different information), the temporal lobe (takes care of the auditory capacity and of processing the temporal relations) and the occipital lobe (processes graphic information and understanding of written language).
The Neuroligüística studies is responsible for studying the normal functioning of speech mechanisms, taking into account the characteristic functions of each area of the brain.
It is interesting to mention that neurolinguistics is closely linked to the psycholinguistics , which studies the cognitive mechanisms of language through the traditional techniques of experimental psychology .
Psycholinguistics is the discipline that is related to both cognitive and linguistic psychology and specializes in studying mental processes related to the understanding and issuance of messages in a communicational situation. The elements that are involved in this study are the psychological and neurological factors that make it possible for people to acquire a language and use it properly.
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)
The neurolinguistic appeals to computational model to prove the lack of consistency of the specific hypotheses that try to focus on the neural architecture of language. It is a way of abstracting concepts in order to be understood through this science.
The concept of NLP refers to the union of three terms Programming (ability to implement behavioral programs), Neuro (sensory perceptions that mark the emotional state of an individual) and Linguistics (verbal and non-verbal means that we humans use to communicate); from this union the following meaning can be extracted.
Neurolinguistic Programming is not an exclusive concept of computers, it refers to a type of therapy through which you can understand the way in which a person processes the data that enters his brain through sensory experiences. Through the NLP you can know information and work with it, getting the patient to change what is not healthy by new ways of understanding the same situation. It is a term that is associated with therapies such as hypnosis and its objective is to modify a negative memory for another that generates a certain pleasure, change the direction in which a person understands a certain fact so that it does not cause pain or anxiety .