Glaucoma is a disease ocular characterized by an increase in intraocular pressure, atrophy of the optic papilla, hardness of the eyeball and blindness . The term derives from Latin glaucoma which, in turn, comes from a Greek word that means "light green" . This reference is related to the color that the pupil acquires for this condition.
This degenerative neuropathy of optic nerve fibers can be sharp or chronicle . It is worth mentioning that the optic nerve is responsible for carrying visual information from the eye to the brain and that, according to the severity of glaucoma, it can be noted by a decrease in vision or some other visual impairment. It is imperative that this disorder be treated with some urgency to avoid irreversible damage to the nerve , such as the partial or total loss of the view .
Glaucoma is associated with high intraocular pressure . In any case, it is important to note that low or high levels depend on each person. A subject with high intraocular pressure may not develop glaucoma, while another person, with that same pressure, may suffer from this disorder.
As statistics show, this disease is the second most common cause of blindness in the United States.
Types of glaucoma
The specialists distinguish between various types of glaucoma; Here we present the most common.
He open angle glaucoma It is characterized by no symptoms and is caused by an obstruction of the aqueous humor , a clear liquid that flows through the eye from the front to provide nutrients and oxygen to the cornea. Said liquid is produced in the back of the eye and is distributed through tiny channels to the front part known as the angle. In this type of glaucoma there are accumulations within these channels that prevent the fluid from this liquid and cause as a consequence increase in intraocular pressure. It is a chronic and generally hereditary disease.
He closed angle glaucoma or acute, is that which is produced by the sudden increase in intraocular pressure. This type of glaucoma causes discomfort, blurred vision and can cause irreversible blindness in a very short period of time. It is also accompanied by intense pain in this organ. It is a emergency situation in which it is essential to go with a specialist; It should be mentioned that those people who have suffered this type of glaucoma in one of the eyes should perform preventive treatments so that the same does not happen in the other. Many times this problem is caused by an exaggerated use of the drops that help dilation and certain medications.
Specialists claim that half of the people who have glaucoma are not aware. Those with relatives who suffered from glaucoma are the more prone to develop the disorder
He congenital glaucoma It is a disease that is transmitted from parents to children and can be detected when the child is still a baby by observing an abnormal development in the eye organ.
He secondary glaucoma It is one of the least serious and its causes may be the abuse of corticosteroid-like drugs, certain systemic diseases or trauma.
In order to detect this disorder it is essential perform a series of tests and exams that consist of applying a few drops on the eyes to widen the pupil and carefully observe the inside of the eye to notice malformations or other effects caused by glaucoma.
There is also a exam which is known as tonometry that serves to know the pressure of the eye; In any case, this test is not completely accurate because the ocular pressure can change constantly and in some people with glaucoma this pressure is normal. Therefore, in order to know exactly if it is a disorder of this type, it is essential that all series of tests and scans that allow us to rule out any other disease be performed.