The term dyslexia it comes from Greek and represents a difficulty in speech or diction . In practice, it is reflected as an inconvenience that hinders and complicates the process of learning , since it is characterized by influencing the ability to reading , writing , to perform calculations and short-term memory.
Usually, the term is used to mention a disorder that makes it impossible to develop the ability to read normally, although it is also used to denote problems in writing (table that, if properly identified according to medical criteria, is known as dysgraphia ).
Among the types of dyslexia known, the phonological and the deep or mixed . The first refers to the cases in which people make "a global reading" of the words, trying to deduce what term it is instead of completing the recognition of each letter. In this case, reading unknown words is very difficult and confusion of words belonging to the same family ("buy" and "bought", "employee" and "hire") is also common. The second type of dyslexia that we mentioned is more serious. It is not only difficult to read words but also to understand their meaning (especially abstract terms, verbs and connectors) as well as the distinction of words that are usually written together (such as "good" and "days").
As for writing, the following symptoms usually occur:
* alteration of letter order , total or partial, of words both known and unknown to the person;
* change of orientation of the strokes of certain characters;
* confusion of similar letters, such as 'p' and 'b', or 'd' and 'b'.
On the other hand, the reading It is usually characterized by:
* difficulty distinguishing certain letters or to read them in order;
* overlook misspellings;
* difficulty reading sentences or words simple and especially short .
Others symptom They include not being able to copy words easily, use one word for another even when they have no relation to each other, and have difficulty distinguishing the right from the left.
This disorder is usually associated with problems in motor coordination and attention , but does not imply at all a intelligence below average. Moreover, many people who suffer from dyslexia are very capable and lead successful lives.
For the psychology and the psychiatry , dyslexia consists in the registration of a difference between the learning potential and the level that a person reaches when they have to expose their knowledge . We speak of an individual who has not been detected sensory, physical, motor difficulties or educational deficiencies that could affect or condition this process. In fact, it is these purely physical issues that should be ruled out as soon as cognitive difficulties are identified. Then you can move on to the psychological ground where, for example, a speech therapist It will look for the causes, both physical and emotional, of the aforementioned disorders.
Several neurological studies have noticed certain characteristics in the angular turn (the structure that is located in the parietal lobe of the left cerebral hemisphere) of dyslexic patients. There are also medical theories that believe that dyslexia originates in the right cerebral hemisphere , which for many is responsible for processing visual information and that, in certain cases, would work at a lower speed than the hemisphere left (in charge of the processes linked to language). This is consistent with the theory that the origin of the problem is closely related to the ability, in this minor case, to organize graphic symbols.
The specialists point out that there are hereditary factors that increase the chances of a person I may suffer from dyslexia. However, it is not yet known precisely how other issues influence, such as genetics, pregnancy development or possible complications at the time of delivery, lesions in the cerebral cortex, emotional instability and difficulties in adapting to school.
It should be noted that teachers and parents of dyslexic children have a great responsibility in their hands, since it is up to them not to add pressures and frustrations to these people who struggle to resolve issues that for others are simple and everyday. In the best case, there are schools that offer the possibility of taking oral exams instead of written ones, as well as computer tools that help in learning and learning. writing . School success will then depend on a considered treatment and will be even more possible if you try to reach the child through the fields that interest you most.