The sculpture is a artistic discipline which consists in the creation of figures from actions like sculpt or cut different materials The term, from the Latin word sculptūra, is also used to name the work resulting from this work.
The individual who makes sculptures is called sculptor . Your task is to create volumes that allow you to represent a image or convey an idea. There are sculptures of stone, mud, wood, bronze, gold and other materials.
The sculptures can have a magical or ritual purpose. In those cases, the work It goes beyond aesthetics, since different meanings are attributed to it. Currently, anyway, sculpture is usually considered an artistic work, without any other symbolic burden.
The first sculptures were made in the Prehistory , hundreds of thousands of years ago. At that time they were produced with stones or bones. Over time the man began to use other materials.
If we look specifically at the European continent, the oldest manifestations of the sculpture are found in the lower Palaeolithic, that is, in the first period from the first stage of the Stone Age, also called the Paleolithic period. At that time so remote, the human being used a mineral called flint, which cut by means of percussion against another rock. Later, he began to use engraving, as well as relief, a technique he practiced both on stone and on bone of animal origin.
Prehistoric sculpture is often associated with human figures of great exuberance that were created around thirty thousand years ago. It's about the famous Venus Paleolithic , a series of female statues that supposedly exalted fertility from an artistic point of view. Two of the exponents most important of that group are the Venus of Lespugue and the Venus of Willendorf.
Already in the upper Palaeolithic, the last of the Paleolithic periods, objects abounded engravings or carvings that at first were relatively primitive, since they went from having decorations of little complexity to representations of animals adapted to the surface of the bone. Another very common material of that time was clay; In the Near East, India, China and Egypt, where some of the oldest specimens of the sculpture come from, there were pottery kilns four millennia before Christ.
Without a doubt, the sculpture took a leap when the human being understood how to work the metal . In the first place, this advance took place with bronze, and later the techniques for manipulating iron appeared, thanks to which more effective tools emerged, as well as materials for the works themselves. Building a work in clay and then emptying it in bronze is a process that dates back to Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, but is still used today.
Due to their characteristics, many sculptures have remained in the history And they are famous worldwide. The terracotta warriors For example, there are more than 8000 sculptures that were created about two hundred years before Christ and buried next to the Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huang . Each of these figures, developed in real size, has its own features.
In the Easter Island On the other hand, there are moas : huge sculptures that were carved for several centuries by the aborigines. There are moáis weighing more than ten tons.
At the beginning of century XVI , Miguel Angel He created his most popular sculpture: the David , which shows the biblical king before fighting Goliath . This figure, found in the city Italian from Florence, measures more than five meters and is a Renaissance jewel.