Subgenres within the theater can be divided into major (tragedy, drama and comedy ) and minors (sacramental self, sainete and entremés ); the former are complex representations, divided into several acts, while the latter are generally composed of a single act and last for a short time.
The word sainete It is used to identify pieces that are framed in the dramatic genre, have jocular content and that develop in a single act .
In ancient times, these works were carried out during an intermediate cut or after the end of a function . It should be noted that this word is also used to name the play , usually with comic characteristics, which has a setting and popular characters and is organized in one or more acts, as an independent staging.
For example: "Next weekend a sainete directed by Héctor Gozniak will be released at the People's Theater", “A beggar, a street vendor and a prostitute are the protagonists of the sainete that was awarded the Excellence Award”, "I don't like the sainete, I prefer the tragedies".
The sainete is considered to be a theatrical subgenre which replaced the side dish during the century XVIII . This work had a strong humorous tinge and reflected the ideas and popular customs.
Some authors who shone especially in this genre were the Brothers Álvarez Quintero and Carlos Arniches, who knew how to take the stage a much more lively show and with a colloquial language that allowed us to see everyday Madrid reflected in a play.
The fundamental characteristics of gender are to show a light expressiveness represented in a popular atmosphere and extremely realistic; It also had a documentary value faithfully showing how one lived and thought in a particular society and above all, showed the importance of identifying with the homeland and joining others in the same nationalist fervor.
On the other hand, they were works that lacked artifacts on stage because they were considered smaller than large works, but this although made them simpler, also brought them closer to the people and made them look more spontaneous and fresh.
With the passage of time the sainete was incorporating elements of other genres such as the Operetta and melodrama, combining humor, morality, songs and dances.
The sainete were very common during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, were the substitutes of the hors d'oeuvres, another minor work that also served as support for major works. Some of its main representatives were Luis Moncín, Juan Ignacio González del Castillo, Antonio Furmento Bazo, and Gaspar Zavala and Zamora.
At the end of the 19th century, this subgenre crossed the ocean and began to be cultivated in the Río de la Plata, so it was that it gave rise to another subgenus Creole grotesque, similar to the sainete in irony and folkloric dye but with a more dramatic and dreary character and that represented the customs of these coasts. Armando Discépolo was one of its fundamental authors.
It is interesting to add that the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE) recognize other meanings for the notion of sainete. According to the institution, it can be a pleasant snack to taste or palate, a soft and delicate flavor, a sauce that complements some delicacies to improve its flavor, a thing that serves to enhance the merit of something, or a Special ornamentation in dresses.