The paleoanthropology is the specialization of the anthropology focused on analysis of human evolution based on its fossil remains . Fossil records, therefore, are their main study material.
It is worth mentioning that the paleontology It is the science that is dedicated to studying fossil remains to meet the organisms that lived in the Earth's past. That is why paleoanthropology is also often referred to as the human paleontology .
The biology , the geology and the archeology they are other fields of knowledge that maintain a close link with paleoanthropology. His techniques allow the search, analysis and interpretation of elements of humanity's past .
Usually paleoanthropology works with fossils of bones : that is, with bone pieces that have been petrified for natural reasons. Anyway, you can also investigate footprints and get information from very old tools .
As for the birth of paleoanthropology, it is usually associated with the discovery of the fossil bones of the Neanderthal man in 1856 . This finding in a quarry in a German valley allowed us to learn about a different kind of hominid than Homo sapiens .
From then on, the study of fossil bones was progressing to constitute a specific branch of anthropology. Thanks to this discipline, it is possible to learn about the origin , the evolution and extinction of past living beings, in addition to knowing the relationships they established with their environment and between them, the way they were distributed on the earth's surface, their migrations and other issues.